Oxidating flame

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Most contain a ceramic honeycomb studded with microscopic particles of platinum, palladium or rhodium.

Among other functions, these metals split oxygen molecules that land on their surface into more-reactive single oxygen atoms, which can combine with fuel at a much lower temperature than in a flame.

The copper acts as a reducing agent, giving up electrons to the oxygen molecule, which acts as the oxidizing agent.

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It is caused by a highly exothermic reaction (for example, combustion, a self-sustaining oxidation reaction) taking place in a thin zone.Welding processes can be split into two broad categories: The surfaces of two components to be joined are cleaned, placed close together and heated while being protected from oxidation.A pool of molten metal forms and connects the components, a filler rod may be used to add metal to the joint.Oxidation reactions occur when the reactant loses electrons and may involve the addition of oxygen or the loss of hydrogen, while reduction reactions occur when the reactant gains electrons and may involve the loss of oxygen or the addition of hydrogen.In oxidation, the atom or molecule becomes more positively charged, while in reduction, the molecule becomes more negatively charged.

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